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    Land loss

    Colonisation and settlement In 1839 Colonel William Wakefield had to work with the conquering tribes to establish the New Zealand Company’s Wellington and Nelson settlement schemes. After three very dubious purchases (since discredited) the company acquir ...


    Changing the environment

    From forest to pasture Before humans arrived, the Taranaki region was one of the most densely forested areas of New Zealand. Over several hundred years Māori partially cleared the bush for several kilometres inland from the coast, and in tiny areas furthe ...


    Community guardianship

    Community involvement in the guardianship of New Zealand cities’ green spaces began in the late 19th century. Different groups have come and gone, but a tradition of guardianship has endured. Protectors of rocks As well as planting trees and lobbying to p ...


    Origins and functions

    What is a Reserve Bank? Central, or reserve, banks are not-for-profit public policy agencies that stand between governments and banks. They issue bank notes and provide banking services to the government and commercial banks. Reserve banks have oversight ...


    Overview and climate

    New Zealand’s subantarctic islands consist of five isolated island groups scattered in a 700-kilometre-wide semi-circle to the south and east of the South Island. The five groups are: the Snares Islands, the smallest in land area and the closest to the ma ...


    Origins of Ngāti Ruanui

    The people of Ngāti Ruanui have a traditional saying: Ko Aotea te waka Ko Turi te tangata ki runga Ko Taranaki te maunga Ko Waingongoro te awa Ko Ngāti Ruanui te iwi. Aotea is the canoe Turi is the ancestor Taranaki is the mountain Waingongoro is the rive ...



    Aluminium, the most common metal in the earth’s crust, is lighter than copper, steel or brass, resists corrosion and readily conducts electricity and heat. It is non-sparking and non-magnetic, and can be recycled indefinitely. When combined with zinc and ...