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    Election day

    General elections have normally taken place in October or November in the third year of the parliamentary term – although since 2014 they have been in September. Elections have not always occurred on a single day – the first election of 1853 took place in ...


    Election campaigning

    Traditionally, New Zealand’s election campaign has had a formal length of about one month. This is in part a result of laws and conventions relating to the time between the dissolution of Parliament and the election of the next one, which must be less tha ...


    Electoral finance

    Campaigning costs money, and issues relating to political finance and its regulation have been of increasing concern in New Zealand. Arguments are made about the unfairness of electoral participants having unequal amounts of money to spend on their campai ...


    Island sanctuaries

    During glacial periods, when the sea level was lower, most nearshore islands were connected to the mainland. When the sea rose to its present height about 6,000 years ago, isolated hills became islands. Today, their plants and animals generally resemble t ...


    The early 21st century at the Olympics

    Triathlon triumphs The triathlon was introduced to the Olympics at Sydney in 2000. New Zealander Hamish Carter won the gold medal at the 2004 Athens Olympics and compatriot Bevan Docherty won silver. Carter was 33 and some had wondered if he was past his ...


    Challenges to the industry

    Environmental effects As the conservation movement gained influence in the 2000s, the marketing slogan of ‘100% Pure New Zealand’ risked seeming untenable. The tourist industry set its own environmental standards such as Green Globe 21 – an international ...


    Representative democracy and referendums

    New Zealand is a representative democracy, with a Parliament consisting of members who represent the voters that elected them. This is true of legislatures (parliaments) in all modern democracies. Generally speaking, voters' views are considered and ...


    New organisations, 1970s onwards

    Business Roundtable The New Zealand Business Roundtable began in 1976 with informal meetings between a handful of senior business executives, who were frustrated with New Zealand’s highly regulated industrial relations structures and the government’s wage ...