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    Kapa haka in the 21st century

    Local, regional and national competitions By the 21st century kapa haka was a firmly established vehicle for sustaining and developing Māori language and culture. Tens of thousands of participants competed, while many more practitioners regularly enjoyed ...


    Māori treasures and European museums

    The arrival of English explorer James Cook in New Zealand in 1769 saw the first gifting of taonga (ancestral treasures) by Māori to Europeans. These taonga left an ancient Pacific culture of reciprocity and belonging, and entered a foreign system of legal ...


    Māori engage with museums, 1870s to 1970s

    Despite the succession of ways that museums presented taonga (treasures), always with colonial Pākehā interpretations, Māori enthusiastically engaged with New Zealand’s museums. This engagement was, however, always for their own purposes. In the late 19th ...


    Te Māori and its impact

    Te Māori goes to the United States The internationally celebrated Māori art exhibition of 1984–87, Te Māori, represented a critical moment, when New Zealand began to shrug off its identity as a British colony and imagine itself as part of the Pacific. Unl ...


    Increasing Māori involvement in museums, 1987 to 2000

    New directions after Te Māori The years immediately following the Te Māori exhibition saw an increase in Māori involvement in the museum sector. In 1988 the National Museum established a Wellington-based trainee scheme for Māori seeking museum careers. Th ...


    The challenges of the new century, 1997 onwards

    The O’Regan Report, 1997 In 1997 a report by Gerard O’Regan on Māori involvement in museums was released. It highlighted the continuing challenges for Māori, including their struggle to enter middle and senior curatorial or management positions. The ‘Te M ...


    First decades of Māori radio

    Early Māori-language broadcasts Although radio broadcasting in Aotearoa New Zealand began in 1921, the Māori language was not heard on air with any regularity until 1927. In that year Airini Grenell (of Ngāi Tahu) sang for radio listeners and performances ...


    Broadcasting Māori music and speech, 1960s to 1980s

    Māori showbands From the 1960s Māori voices and the Māori language were heard on radio periodically in both spoken-word and music programmes. Showbands such as the Howard Morrison Quartet, the Quin Tikis and the Maori Hi-Five rose to national and internat ...


    First iwi radio station

    Agitating for Māori on air In the 1970s, despite improvements on earlier decades, weekly Māori-language and Māori-interest programming by state broadcasters totalled less than 90 minutes. In this decade the state of the Māori language reached crisis point ...


    The iwi radio network

    New iwi stations go to air From 1985 the example set by Ngā Kaiwhakapūmau i te Reo was followed by a wave of other regional Māori radio stations. Lacking state funding, they used outdated equipment discarded by mainstream radio stations. Many were staffed ...