Skip to main content

Primary tabs



    Sector and trade groups

    businesses in their sector. Road Transport Forum The Road Transport Forum was formed in the late 1990s to ... government, including road user charges, road construction and vehicle regulation. The forum’s predecessors ...


    Private and public investment, 1890 to 1940

    Booming pastoral economy In the early 20th century private investment was driven by population growth and changing economic opportunities. The development of refrigerated shipping from the 1880s encouraged meat and dairy production, and as commodity price ...



    Many timbers (including pine, kauri and kahikatea) can decay, especially if wet. One early treatment to prevent rot involved painting timber with creosote, a preservative made from coal tar. Creosote, almost black with a strong pungent smell, was used unt ...


    Energy before the 20th century

    Māori and energy All agricultural, building and manufacturing work by Māori relied on muscle power. Goods, and occasionally people, were carried. Waka (canoes) were used for transport and were paddled, or when necessary pushed overland on skids. Muscle po ...


    Energy and forestry

    Coal Mining of the extensive Waikato coalfields began at Huntly in 1876. Production increased steadily until the 1960s, followed by fluctuations depending on economic conditions. Waikato coal is sub-bituminous ‘brown’ coal, less prized than the bituminous ...


    Putaruru and Tīrau

    Tīrau Township 9 km north-west of Putaruru, with a 2013 population of 690. Established in 1870 as a military post, Tīrau became a coach stop for travellers. First called Oxford to identify it as a sister town to Cambridge, it was later named Tīrau to avoi ...



    Main administrative centre for the South Waikato district, 88 km south-east of Hamilton, with a 2013 population of 12,717. Tokoroa takes its name from the surrounding area, shown as Tokoroa Plains on 19th-century maps. Tokoroa was a chief of Ngāti Kahupun ...


    Climate, plants and animals

    Because of its combination of mountains and lowlands, Hauraki–Coromandel has a wide range of local climates and native vegetation types for a coastal region in the upper North Island. At higher altitudes annual rainfall can be twice the volume and mean te ...


    Māori and European: 1769 to 1840

    James Cook In November 1769 Lieutenant James Cook spent three weeks in the region. He observed the transit of Mercury at Whitianga, sailed around the Coromandel Peninsula into the Firth of Thames, and spent two days on the Waihou River. Botanist Joseph Ba ...


    Kauri timber and gum

    Kauri grew throughout the extensive forests of the peninsula before the arrival of Europeans. It is the second-largest and second-longest-living tree in the world. Botanist Thomas Kirk wrote in awe of ‘one of the grandest sights in the vegetable world. Ma ...